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Plants and Animals

Cities in FINLAND


Plants and Animals


Birches FinlandBirches FinlandPhoto: Kallerna CC 4.0 International no changes made

Finland is one of the most forested countries in Europe with three main species: pine 53%, fir 28% and birch 19%, as well as aspen and juniper. Pines and spruces thrive in Finland because of the sparse, dry soil. Coniferous trees no longer grow in the northernmost area, but Finnish Lapland is the area of low birch.

Reindeer moss FinlandReindeer moss FinlandPhoto: Matti Paavonen CC 3.0 Unported no changes made

In Lapland the undergrowth of the forests consists largely of reindeer moss and there are some types of arctic flowers. More than 42,000 km2 of the state forests are protected. In the forests, many types of berries such as raspberries, blueberries and cranberries grow up to the polar border. The lakes in Finland are covered with water lilies. Lapland has tundra and mountain vegetation. The many rocky islands do not have many flowers, but they are very colorful. Daisies, buttercups and cornflowers are found all over the country. Also noteworthy are the many types of mushrooms that are collected by many Finns.


Reindeer FinlandReindeer FinlandPhoto:Manfred Werner CC 3.0 Unported no changes made

Finland's northern location is the reason why the animal world does not have so many species. Bears, moose wolves (sharply reduced in number), lynxes, foxes and wolverines (which have become rare) are found in the wild. Reindeer herds have become less numerous. A characteristic of Lapland is the lemming, which lives on the high, flat mountains above the tree line. The protected moose is mainly found in the South Lapland forest and swamp areas. Fur species such as mink, martens and ermine are found all over the country. There are eleven species of reptiles and frogs in Finland. The adder is the only poisonous snake.

Capercaille FinlandCapercaille FinlandPhoto:Tero Laakso CC 2.0 Generic no changes made

Of the approximately 350 bird species that occur in Finland, 230 are migratory birds. Eagles and owl species are strictly protected. The forests are rich in birds, including grouse and capercaillie. The ptarmigan nests in the swamp and moss areas, and the eider on the coasts. Finnish waters have 77 species of fish, about half of which are freshwater species. Common are pike, perch, bream, salmon and trout.


Encarta Encyclopedie

Europese Unie: Europees Platform voor het Nederlandse Onderwijs

Schaap, D. / Finland

Tuovinen, E. / Finland

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated March 2024
Copyright: Team The World of Info