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Cities in ENGLAND

Birmingham Liverpool London

Popular destinations UNITED KINGDOM

EnglandNorthern irelandScotland



The English love there pubThe English love there pubPhoto: Mark Waugh (CC BY 2.0) no changes made

The residents of England are descended from a number of populations that settled on the British Isles over the course of millennia. The last invasion was that of the Normans in 1066. Before the Normans, several pre-Celtic and Celtic-speaking populations came to Great Britain and Ireland, followed by Romans (55 BC - 410 AD), Anglo-Saxons, Frisians and the Vikings from Denmark and Norway. All these peoples have undeniably left their mark in culture, language and architecture.

The number of British Commonwealth immigrants who came to live in the United Kingdom after World War II, and their descendants, was estimated at 4% of the total population in 1995. Immigrants just after the war were needed to reduce the major labor shortage. The government tried to solve this problem by attracting immigrants from former colonies such as India and Pakistan and from overseas territories in Africa and the Caribbean. The total number ran into the hundreds of thousands in the 1950s and 60s.

Ethnicity EnglandEthnicity EnglandPhoto: Stevvvv4444 CC 3.0 Unported no changes made

A large proportion of them live in the urban areas of London and Manchester, among others. Many people of Asian descent live in Leicester, Birmingham and Bradford, while many immigrants from Africa and the Caribbean live in London. Since 1962/1968, immigration has become increasingly strict and the number of immigrants has declined. In the 1970s, many refugees mainly came to England, including Uganda, Bosnia, Somalia, Afghanistan and Eastern Turkey. Currently (2017), approximately 13% of the English population is not white.

Domestic migration mainly concerned people from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland who moved to the major industrial cities of England.


The birth rate in 2017 was 12.1 per 1000 inhabitants, the death rate 9.4 per 1000 inhabitants. Population growth at 0.52 per year (2017). The average life expectancy at birth in 2017 was 78.6 years for men and 83.1 years for women. In 2017, 17.5% of the population was under 15 years old, 64.5% between 15 and 64 years old and 18% over 65 years old. These figures apply to the United Kingdom as a whole.


England has more than 55 million inhabitants, the United Kingdom as a whole 65.5 million. The lion's share of the UK population lives in England, 9% in Scotland, 3% in Northern Ireland and 5% in Wales. 83% of the British population lives in cities and suburbs.

In 2017, England had a population density of around 400 people per km2. All these people do not live equally across the country. In the West Midlands, for example, there are almost 3000 people per km2. Oxfordshire and Norfolk are areas where the population density is below the national average. Near the Scottish border, in Cumbria and Morthumberland, only 75 people live per km2.

London is the most populous city in England with neighborhoods such as Chelsea and Kensington having more than 13,000 inhabitants per km2. The largest cities in England are: London 8.6 million inhabitants, Birmingham 2.8 million inhabitants and Manchester 2.7 million inhabitants (2017).


Allport, A. / England
Chelsea House

Bowden, R. / Groot-Brittannië

Engeland, Wales

Lonely Planet

Rough Guides

Fuller, B. / Britain
Marshall Cavendish

Michelin Reisuitgaven

Locke, T. / Engeland
Van Reemst

Parsons, F.S. / Engeland
Van Reemst,

Schaedtler, K. / Highlights van Engeland en Wales

Somerville, C. / Groot-Brittannië

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated June 2024
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