Geography and Landscape
Eswatini Satellite PhotoPhoto: Public Domain
In a small area, there is a striking variety of landscapes, such as marshland, green hills and subtropical, savannahs and jagged rocks. There are four regions that vary in altitude from 400 to 1800 metres. From west to east these are: Highgveld, Middleveld, Lowveld and Lubombo.
Typical landscape EswatiniPhoto: Sara Atkins CC 2.0 Generic no changes made
The rocky Highveld has an impressive landscape with waterfalls and rivers in deeply carved valleys. Timber plantations and mining make this region of great economic importance. The densely populated Middleveld (700 - 800 m) is the heart of Eswatini. Thanks to fertile soil and a subtropical climate, most agricultural areas can be found here. The savannahs of the Lowveld are dry and warm. This makes this region suitable for cultivating sugar, pineapple and citrus fruits. The mountainous Lubombo region, which borders Mozambique, is lush green and rich in flora and fauna. Lubombo is sparsely populated and rarely visited.
Climate and Weather
The climate varies from (sub)tropical to temperate in the highest parts of Eswatini. The average daily temperature is between 15 and 22 degrees Celsius. In the higher parts of the country there is a lot of cloud and fog. The temperature can drop to around freezing point there.
Plants and Animals
About 2,600 different plants and trees have been counted in the national parks, some of which are unique to this part of Africa. The following species are found, among others: aloe, arum, pine, eucalyptus, gladiolus, muninga and orchid. The national tree of Eswatini is the marula tree.
There are many animals to see in Eswatini. Zebras, leopards, impalas, elephants, antelopes, divers, waterbucks, wildebeests, rhinos, hippos, cevats and crocodiles are examples of the rich fauna. Poisonous snakes also occur, including the black mamba, the viper and the cobra. The national bird of Eswatini is the Glossy-tailed toucan.
CIA - World Factbook
BBC - Country Profiles
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