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Geography and Landscape

Basic information
Official languageArabic
Area185.180 kmĀ²
Population18,244,381  (2021)
CurrencySyrian pound  (SYP)

Cities in SYRIA


Geography and Landscape


Syria is located in the Middle East. Syria borders the Mediterranean Sea and lies between Turkey and Lebanon. It also borders Israel, Jordan and Iraq. The surface area of Syria is 185,180 square kilometres.

Syria Satellite PhotoSyria Satellite PhotoPhoto: Public Domain


Syria is mostly desert, surrounded by part of the so-called 'fertile crescent'. This 'crescent' runs from the Persian Gulf in Iraq along the Euphrates and Tigris to the north. It then curves westwards and continues southwards along the coast of Syria, Lebanon and Israel. The highest mountain in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains is Mount Hermon (2814 metres). Its snow-capped peak is already visible from Damascus. A number of green oases interrupt the barren, yellow-grey plains of the Syrian steppe desert.

Hermon, highest mountain in SyriaHermon, highest mountain in SyriaPhoto: VBeivushtang in the public domain

Climate and Weather

Syria has a subtropical climate along the coast and a (desert) continental climate in the central and eastern parts with hot summers and relatively cold winters. In terms of temperature, this means that the winters can be cold and rainy and the summers sweltering. In April, May and June and in September, October and November, the temperature is the most pleasant with an average temperature of twenty degrees.

Plants and Animals


In spring, the rain-rich area of western Syria is covered with flowers such as blue lupine, red hibiscus, pink cuckoo flower and purple thistle. Cyclamen blooms as early as December. Oleander bushes grow abundantly in the wadis. The most common trees in the mountain areas are pine, oak and cypress. Common trees are cedar, cypress, pine, oak, carob, olive, palm and tamarind. Jasmine is the (non-official) flower of Syria.


Only the strongest animals can survive in the desert. The ibex and gazelle have almost disappeared. Only in the impassable, mountainous area around the Dead Sea do these species still exist. Other species include the flamingo, the cliff-dace, the pelican, the porcupine and the wolf.

The national bird of Syria is the hawk, which is also included in the Syrian coat of arms.


Elmar Landeninformatie

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated May 2024
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