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Part of the Soviet Union

Tajikistan was for a long time part of the Old Persian Empire and later of the Persian Samanid dynasty.

Tajikistan was part of the Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan as the Tajik ASSR from 1924 to 1929. In 1929, Tajikistan became a separate Soviet Republic (Tajik SSR), which gained independence in September 1991. After a short interim of Kadreddin Aslonov as president, the communist Rahmon Nabiyev became president. Nabiyev (died 1993) was succeeded in 1992 by Emomalii Rahmon, a former kolkhoz director.

Period Rahmon

Immediately after independence, a civil war broke out between Islamists and the government under Emomalii Rahmon. Contrary to what many people think, this war was not a conflict between communists on the one hand and Islamists and democrats on the other, but was simply an ethnic conflict. The civil war was a struggle between the regions (provinces) of Chudzand and Kulob which had gone to war with the Qurghonteppa region. Chudzand and Kulob were the provinces that always ruled during the Soviet era and were supported by the communists (who had their power base there), while the disadvantaged Qurghonteppa did not agree with that situation. Qurghonteppa was the power base of the democrats and Islamists. The conflict came to an end in 1997, when the Islamists were incorporated into the government. Since December 1999, Oqil Oqilov has been the prime minister of Tajikistan.

After 11 September 2001, American troops were stationed in Chorog (Badachsjon region) and Dushanbe, and French troops in Dushanbe. However, the largest military role has traditionally been played by Russia. Until mid-2005, Russia controlled the border with Afghanistan. In the meantime, this task has been taken over by Tajik troops. In November 2006, President Rahmon was re-elected for the third time in elections that international observers considered neither free nor fair. The winter of 2008 was the harshest in 50 years; Tajikistan asked for help from the international community. In April 2008, a dispute arose over a loan from the IMF because Tajikistan had provided false data.

In January 2009, Tajikistan and the United States concluded an agreement allowing for the supply of troops in Afghanistan through Tajikistan's territory. In February 2010, the ruling party won the parliamentary elections. In January 2011, Tajikistan and China reached an agreement over a border dispute. In October 2012, Tajikistan allows Russia to keep military bases in Tajikistan for another 30 years. President Rahmon is re-elected in November 2013. His party also won a large majority in the parliamentary elections of March 2015. In May 2016, a referendum is held confirming that there is no longer a line in time for a president to stay in office. In 2017, official media are obliged to refer to President Rahmon by his extended full title "Founder of peace and national unity, leader of the nation, President of the Republic of Tajikistan, His Excellency Emomali Rahmon," In 2021, after the fall of Kabul, Tajikistan became involved in the Panjshir conflict against the Taliban on the side of the National Resistance Front of Afghanistan.



Elmar Landeninformatie

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated May 2024
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