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Plants and Animals



Plants and Animals


Stelmuže oak, LithuaniaStelmuže oak, LithuaniaPhoto: Algirdas Svid in the public domain

The face of Lithuania's forests has changed significantly over the centuries. The only primeval forests can still be found on sandy soils, especially in the Dzukija region. Oaks are almost impossible to find in Lithuania. The oldest oak is in the village of Stelmuže and is estimated to be 1,500 years old.

Pine woods, LithuaniaPine woods, LithuaniaPhoto: VietovesLt CC 3.0 no changes made

At present, pine trees of both native and non-native species make up 40% of Lithuania's forest. Birch and spruce are also common species, as well as as aspen, alder, ash, elm and lime. The soil of the pine forests is densely covered with lichens, of which 400 species can be found in Lithuania. Blueberries and mushrooms grow abundantly in Lithuanian forests and picking them is a kind of national hobby. There are about 2000 species of wild flowers in Lithuania.


There are currently 63 land mammals in Lithuania, including large animals such as red deer, elk and wild boar. Other carnivores include wolves, foxes, pine martens, polecats, raccoons, lynxes and wild cats. Also rodents like field mice, dormice, squirrels, brown hare and the rare blue hare.

White Stork, LithuaniaWhite Stork, LithuaniaPhoto: Mindaugas Urbonas CC 2.5 no changes made

Otters live in the many rivers, and seals and porpoises in the coastal waters. Lithuania has about 300 species of birds. The stork, the national bird, is very common and almost every farm has a stork's nest. The black stork is also still common. Large colonies of cormorants and grey herons live on the coast. Furthermore, swans, gulls, lapwings, little grebes, bitterns. Four nature reserves are breeding grounds for cranes, capercaillie, black grouse and plovers. In the woods we find many woodpeckers, tits and thrushes. Birds of prey include falcons, harriers, hawks, buzzards and owls.

Barn Owl, LithuaniaBarn Owl, LithuaniaPhoto: Stevie B CC 3.0 no changes made

Lithuanian rivers are very rich in fish. About 25 species of carp make up about 25% of the freshwater fish, along with salmon, trout, tench, bream, eels, pike and zander. The climate is not very suitable for reptiles and therefore only a few species live in Lithuania; lizards, grass snakes, vipers, marsh turtles and hazelworms. Amphibians such as frogs and toads are common. There are also hundreds of species of butterflies.


Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania : country studies
Federal Research Division, Library of Congress

McLachlan, G. / Lithuania
Bradt Publications

Williams, N. / Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania
Lonely Planet,

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated June 2024
Copyright: Team The World of Info