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Geography and Landscape

Basic information
Official languageTajik
Area143.100 kmĀ²
Population9,912,437  (2021)
Currencysomoni  (TJS)

Geography and Landscape


Tajikistan is located in Central Asia. Tajikistan is landlocked and lies west of China. The other countries it borders are Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan has several exclaves, the largest being Voroech in Kyrgyzstan. The surface area of Tajikistan is 143,100 square kilometres.

Tajikistan Satellite PhotoTajikistan Satellite PhotoPhoto: Public Domain


The country is very mountainous. At least half of the country lies more than three thousand metres above sea level. The mountain ridges, which have little vegetation due to drought, lie in an east-west direction through the country and belong to the Tian and Pamir mountains. The Pamir mountains are foothills of the Himalayas. The highest peaks in the country are Ismoil Somoni Peak and Lenin Peak. They are 7495 and 7127 metres high respectively. The lower parts of the country are found in the southwest and north. There are many glaciers in the mountains, which are the source of streams and rivers.

Ismoil Somoni, highest mountain in TajikistanIsmoil Somoni, highest mountain in TajikistanPhoto: Amestramgram CC 3.0 Unportedno changes made

The capital Dushanbe is located in the west of the country at the foot of the Hisorge Mountains, which separate the Amoe Darja and Syr Darja basins. The main rivers that run through the country are the Syr Darja, the Pyandsh and the Amu Darja. All three eventually drain into the Aral Sea. The Amu Darja and Pyandsh form for the most part the southern border with Afghanistan.

Climate and Weather

In the valleys and other low parts of the country, there is a pronounced continental climate. Extremely hot summers contrast with freezing winters. The average maximum temperature in July is around 48 degrees, while in January the thermometer averages minus 12 degrees. A 60-degree difference in average January and July temperatures occurs almost nowhere else in the world. There is not much precipitation in Tajikistan.

Plants and Animals


Not much forest grows on the slopes of the mountain ridges. Tian fir, larch and juniper are the main vegetation. All kinds of grasses and wild flowers also grow in the mountains. Edelweiss also blooms here every year. The valleys are cultivated. By applying irrigation on a large scale, the land has been made suitable for agriculture. Fruit, grain and vegetables are grown here and define the landscape. Cotton and wheat are the national plants of Tajikistan.


Boars, lynxes, wolves and bears live in the mountains. They feed on smaller game that also live there. Higher up in the mountains, on the rocky slopes, lives the snow leopard. The national animal of Tajikistan is the Asiatic lion.



Elmar Landeninformatie

CIA - World Factbook

BBC - Country Profiles

Last updated May 2024
Copyright: Team The World of Info