CanberraPhoto: Tim J Keegan (CC BY-SA 2.0) no changes made
Canberra is the capital of Australia. It is Australia's largest non-coastal city. According to the 2011 census, the city has a population of 358,222 inhabitants. Canberra is located on the northern part of the Australian Capital Territory, 286 km southwest of Sydney and 669 km northeast of Melbourne. Residents of Canberra are referred to as "Canberrans". The word Canberra is derived from the word Kambera or Canberry, which has the meaning of "meeting place" in the old Ngunnawal language of the locals the Ngabri.
Since the two largest and rival cities of Sydney and Melbourne were unable to agree on the capital of Australia, a compromise was found in choosing Canberra as the nation's capital in 1908. Canberra is the seat of the government of Australia. The Parliament House, the High Court and numerous government agencies and bodies are located here, as are many international companies and banks.
The coordinates are 35 ° 18'29 "South latitude and 149 ° 07'28" East longitude.
Canberra has an area of 814.2 km2 and is located near the mountain ranges of Brindabella, about 150 kilometers inland from the Australian east coast. The city is located at about 580 meters altitude, the highest point is Mount Majura at 888 meters. There are several large hills in the vicinity of the city: Mount Taylor, Mount Ainslie, Mount Mugga and Black Mountain.
Balloon above Lake Burley GriffinPhoto: Percita Dittmar CC 2.0 Generic no changes made
The urban area of the city of Canberra spreads over the Ginninderra plain, Molonglo plain, the Limestone plain, and the Tuggeranong plain. The Molonglo River flows through the Molonglo plain and has formed an artificial lake. Lake Burley Griffin is a place to have a picnic, the residents of Canberra like to relax here.
Canberra has a relatively dry continental climate with hot summers and fairly cold winters. In the winters it fogs and there is often frost. It does not snow much in the city, but it does snow in the surrounding areas, especially in the mountains.
Brindabella Chain near CanberraPhoto: Public domain
The average maximum temperature is 19.7 °C, the average minimum temperature is 6.5 °C. The highest measured maximum temperature was 42.2 °C on February 1, 1968. The lowest minimum temperature was minus 10 °C on July 11, 1971 The mountain ranges, especially the Brindabella chain in the west, protect the city and its valleys from extreme weather conditions.
The annual rainfall is 616.4 mm, the rain is spread evenly throughout the seasons, with most rain falling in late spring. Only Adelaide and Hobart are drier in Australia. Thunderstorms usually occur between October and April.
The area around Canberra today was already inhabited by the native Australians before Europeans settled there. The main tribe was the Ngunnawal people. The natives inhabited shelters in the rocks and caves, where rock paintings and paintings have been found, and cemeteries and stone tools. These finds are at least 21,000 years old.
Oldest church of CanberraPhoto: Cfitzart CC 3.0 Unported no changes made
Europeans arrived around the 1820s. They built a station on the Acton Peninsula in 1824 and named the area Canberry. The number of Europeans in the Canberra area increased during the 19th century. The oldest public building in the city center is the Anglican Church of Saint John the Baptist. The graveyard of the same name contains the oldest graves in Canberra.
Canberra cityplan from Walter Burley GriffinOhoto: Public domain
On March 12, 1913, the city officially became the capital of Australia. Lady Denman, wife of Governor General Lord Denman, named the city of Canberra at a special ceremony. Canberra Day is a public holiday that falls on the second Monday in March to celebrate the foundation of the capital in Canberra. City planning is the work of Walter Burley Griffin.
Opening of the Old Parliament Building in Canberra in 1927Photo: Public domain
Australia's parliament meets in Canberra. The former residence, the old parliament building, is now the Museum of Australian Democracy. This building was the headquarters of the government for seventy years until the new parliament building on Capital Hill, opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1988. Canberra has a reputation for being a well-organized small and efficient capital.
High Court of Australia in CanberraPhoto: Nicholas Brown CC 2.0 Generic no changes made
Canberra has many national monuments and institutions such as the Australian War Memorial, the National Gallery of Australia, the National Portrait Gallery, the National Library, the National Archives, the Australian Academy of Sciences and the National Museum. Many government offices in Canberra are open to the public, including the Parliament House, the High Court and the Royal Australian Mint.
National Museum of Austarlia in CanberraPhoto: Nick-D CC 3.0 Unported no changes made
The National Museum of Australia, in the heart of the city center, is one of the most popular museums and was established in 1980. With an impressive natural history section, local artifacts and many interactive, state-of-the-art exhibits , this museum attracts many visitors every year.
Australian War Memorial in CanberraPhoto: Bidgee CC 3.0 Unported no changes made
The striking Australian War Memorial Museum is located in the northern part of central Canberra. The War Memorial is dedicated to the Australians who lost their lives in battle. The Hall of Memory pays tribute to the unknown Australian soldier, whose remains returned from the First World War battlefield in 1993,
National Gallery of Australia in CanberraPhoto: Nick-D CC 3.0 Unported no changes made
The prestigious National Gallery of Australia is located in the center of the city, where it serves as Canberra's leading arts center. It contains a large, permanent collection of traditional and modern paintings, including some from world famous artists. In addition, there are sculptures, ceramics and seasonal events are organized.
Canberra ParliamentPhoto: Andrea Schaffer CC 2.0 Generic no changes made
New Parliament House is one of the city's most recognizable landmarks. Architecturally interesting, this building in the central Capital Hill neighborhood features 50 classic marble columns depicting a eucalyptus forest.
Captain Cook Memorial at Lake Burley Griffin in CanberraPhoto: Bidgee CC 3.0 Unported no changes made
The Captain James Cook Memorial is located at Lake Burley Griffin. Other attractions include the Black Mountain Tower, Australian National Botanic Gardens, National Zoo and Aquarium, Dinosaur Questacon and National Science and Technology Center.
Canberra Multicultural FestivalPhoto: Peter Ellis at en.wikipedoa CC3.0 Unported no changes made
There are plenty of bars and night clubs that also feature live entertainment, mainly concentrated in the Dickson, Kingston and downtown areas. Stonefest at the University of Canberra is a famous two-day music festival. Popular cultural events include the National Folk Festival, the Royal Canberra Show, the Summernats auto festival, the Canberra multicultural festival in February and the Canberra festival coinciding with Canberra Day.